Updated on 25.5.2022

How to install Snort on Ubuntu

Snort Ubuntu

Snort is a popular choice for running a network intrusion detection system or NIDS for short. It monitors the package data sent and received through a specific network interface. NIDS can catch threats targeting your system vulnerabilities using signature-based detection and protocol analysis technologies. NIDS software, when installed and configured appropriately, can identify the latest attacks, malware infections, compromised systems, and network policy violations. In this guide, you will find instructions on how to install Snort on Ubuntu 16. The install guide is also available for cloud servers running CentOS 7 and Debian 9.

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Snort is one of the most commonly used network-based IDS. It is a lightweight, open source, available on a multitude of platforms, and can be comfortably installed even on the smallest of cloud server instances. Although Snort is capable of much more than just network monitoring, this guide shows how to configure and run Snort in NIDS mode with a basic setup that you can later expand as needed.

Snort logo

Preparing your server

Setting up a basic configuration of Snort on Ubuntu is fairly simple but takes a few steps to complete. You will first need to install all the prerequisite software to ready your cloud server for installing Snort itself. Install the required libraries with the following command.

sudo apt install -y gcc libpcre3-dev zlib1g-dev libluajit-5.1-dev 
libpcap-dev openssl libssl-dev libnghttp2-dev libdumbnet-dev 
bison flex libdnet autoconf libtool

With the prerequisites fulfilled, next up is how to install Snort on Ubuntu 16. Snort can be downloaded and installed manually from the source. Below you will find instructions on how to get this done.

Installing from the source

Setting up Snort on Ubuntu from the source code consists of a couple of steps: downloading the code, configuring it, compiling the code, installing it to an appropriate directory, and lastly configuring the detection rules.

Start by making a temporary download folder to your home directory and then changing into it with the command below.

mkdir ~/snort_src && cd ~/snort_src

Snort itself uses something called Data Acquisition library (DAQ) to make abstract calls to packet capture libraries. Download the latest DAQ source package from the Snort website with the wget command underneath. Replace the version number in the command if a newer source available.

wget https://www.snort.org/downloads/snort/daq-2.0.7.tar.gz

The download will only take a few seconds. When complete, extract the source code and jump into the new directory with the following commands.

tar -xvzf daq-2.0.7.tar.gz
cd daq-2.0.7

The latest version requires an additional step to auto reconfigure DAQ before running the config. Use the command below which requires you need to have autoconf and libtool installed.

autoreconf -f -i

Afterwards, run the configuration script using its default values, then compile the program with make and finally install DAQ.

./configure && make && sudo make install

With the DAQ installed you can get started with Snort, change back to the download folder.

cd ~/snort_src

Next, download the Snort source code with wget. You can find the latest version number on the Snort downloads page. Replace it in the following command if necessary.

wget https://www.snort.org/downloads/snort/snort-2.9.16.tar.gz

Once the download is complete, extract the source and change into the new directory with these commands.

tar -xvzf snort-2.9.16.tar.gz
cd snort-2.9.16

Then configure the installation with sourcefire enabled, run make and make install.

./configure --enable-sourcefire && make && sudo make install

With that done, continue below on how to set up the configuration files.

Configuring Snort to run in NIDS mode

Next, you will need to configure Snort for your system. This includes editing some configuration files, downloading the rules that Snort will follow, and taking Snort for a test run.

Start with updating the shared libraries using the command underneath.

sudo ldconfig

Snort on Ubuntu gets installed to /usr/local/bin/snort directory, it is good practice to create a symbolic link to /usr/sbin/snort.

sudo ln -s /usr/local/bin/snort /usr/sbin/snort

Setting up username and folder structure

To run Snort on Ubuntu safely without root access, you should create a new unprivileged user and a new user group for the daemon to run under.

sudo groupadd snort
sudo useradd snort -r -s /sbin/nologin -c SNORT_IDS -g snort

Then create the folder structure to house the Snort configuration, just copy over the commands below.

sudo mkdir -p /etc/snort/rules
sudo mkdir /var/log/snort
sudo mkdir /usr/local/lib/snort_dynamicrules

Set the permissions for the new directories accordingly.

sudo chmod -R 5775 /etc/snort
sudo chmod -R 5775 /var/log/snort
sudo chmod -R 5775 /usr/local/lib/snort_dynamicrules
sudo chown -R snort:snort /etc/snort
sudo chown -R snort:snort /var/log/snort
sudo chown -R snort:snort /usr/local/lib/snort_dynamicrules

Create new files for the white and blacklists as well as the local rules.

sudo touch /etc/snort/rules/white_list.rules
sudo touch /etc/snort/rules/black_list.rules
sudo touch /etc/snort/rules/local.rules

Then copy the configuration files from the download folder.

sudo cp ~/snort_src/snort-2.9.16/etc/*.conf* /etc/snort
sudo cp ~/snort_src/snort-2.9.16/etc/*.map /etc/snort

Next up, you will need to download the detection rules Snort will follow to identify potential threats. Snort provides three tiers of rule sets, community, registered and subscriber rules.

  • Community rules are freely available although slightly limited.
  • By registering for free on their website you get access to your Oink code, which lets you download the registered users rule sets.
  • Lastly, subscriber rules are just that, available to users with an active subscription to Snort services.

Underneath you can find instructions for downloading both community rules or registered user rule sets.

Option 1. Using community rules

If you just want to quickly test out Snort, grab the community rules using wget with the command below.

wget https://www.snort.org/rules/community -O ~/community.tar.gz

Extract the rules and copy them to your configuration folder.

sudo tar -xvf ~/community.tar.gz -C ~/
sudo cp ~/community-rules/* /etc/snort/rules

By default, Snort on Ubuntu expects to find a number of different rule files which are not included in the community rules. You can easily comment out the unnecessary lines using the sed command underneath.

sudo sed -i 's/include $RULE_PATH/#include $RULE_PATH/' /etc/snort/snort.conf

Option 2. Obtaining registered user rules

You can also take a moment and register on the Snort website. Registering gives you access to use their Oink code to download the registered user rules. You can find the code in the Snort user account details.

Replace the oinkcode in the following command with your personal code.

wget https://www.snort.org/rules/snortrules-snapshot-29160.tar.gz?oinkcode=oinkcode -O ~/registered.tar.gz

Once downloaded, extract the rules over to your configuration directory.

sudo tar -xvf ~/registered.tar.gz -C /etc/snort

The rule sets for the registered users include an extensive amount of useful preconfigured detection rules. If you tried out Snort with the community rules first, you can enable additional rules by uncommenting their inclusions towards the end of the snort.conf file.

Configuring the network and rule sets

With the configuration and rule files in place, edit the snort.conf to modify a few parameters. Open the configuration file in your favourite text editor, for example using nano with the command below.

sudo nano /etc/snort/snort.conf

Find these sections shown below in the configuration file and change the parameters to reflect the examples here.

# Setup the network addresses you are protecting
ipvar HOME_NET server_public_ip/32
# Set up the external network addresses. Leave as "any" in most situations
ipvar EXTERNAL_NET !$HOME_NET
# Path to your rules files (this can be a relative path)
var RULE_PATH /etc/snort/rules
var SO_RULE_PATH /etc/snort/so_rules
var PREPROC_RULE_PATH /etc/snort/preproc_rules
# Set the absolute path appropriately
var WHITE_LIST_PATH /etc/snort/rules
var BLACK_LIST_PATH /etc/snort/rules

In the same snort.conf file, scroll down to the section 6 and set the output for unified2 to log under filename of snort.log like below.

# unified2
# Recommended for most installs
output unified2: filename snort.log, limit 128

Lastly, scroll down towards the bottom of the file to find the list of included rule sets. You will need to uncomment the local.rules to allow Snort to load any custom rules.

include $RULE_PATH/local.rules

If you are using the community rules, add the line underneath to your ruleset as well, for example just below your local.rules line.

include $RULE_PATH/community.rules

Once you are done with the configuration file, save the changes and exit the editor.

Validating settings

Your Snort should now be ready to run. Test the configuration using the parameter -T to enable test mode.

sudo snort -T -c /etc/snort/snort.conf

After running the Snort configuration test, you should get a message like this example below.

        --== Initialization Complete ==--

   ,,_     -*> Snort! <*-
  o"  )~   Version 2.9.16 GRE (Build 118) 
   ''''    By Martin Roesch & The Snort Team: http://www.snort.org/contact#team
           Copyright (C) 2014-2020 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
           Copyright (C) 1998-2013 Sourcefire, Inc., et al.
           Using libpcap version 1.8.1
           Using PCRE version: 8.39 2016-06-14
           Using ZLIB version: 1.2.11

           Rules Engine: SF_SNORT_DETECTION_ENGINE  Version 3.1  
           Preprocessor Object: SF_DCERPC2  Version 1.0  
           Preprocessor Object: SF_SSH  Version 1.1  
           Preprocessor Object: SF_FTPTELNET  Version 1.2  
           Preprocessor Object: SF_SDF  Version 1.1  
           Preprocessor Object: SF_DNP3  Version 1.1  
           Preprocessor Object: SF_REPUTATION  Version 1.1  
           Preprocessor Object: SF_IMAP  Version 1.0  
           Preprocessor Object: SF_SMTP  Version 1.1  
           Preprocessor Object: SF_GTP  Version 1.1  
           Preprocessor Object: appid  Version 1.1  
           Preprocessor Object: SF_MODBUS  Version 1.1  
           Preprocessor Object: SF_POP  Version 1.0  
           Preprocessor Object: SF_DNS  Version 1.1  
           Preprocessor Object: SF_SSLPP  Version 1.1  
           Preprocessor Object: SF_SIP  Version 1.1  

Snort successfully validated the configuration!
Snort exiting

In case you get an error, the print out should tell you what the problem was and where to fix it. Most likely problems are missing files or folders, which you can usually resolve by either adding any you might have missed in the setup above, or by commenting out unnecessary inclusion lines in the snort.conf file. Check the configuration part and try again.

Testing the configuration

To test if Snort is logging alerts as intended, add a custom detection rule alert on incoming ICMP connections to the local.rules file. Open your local rules in a text editor.

sudo nano /etc/snort/rules/local.rules

Then add the following line to the file.

alert icmp any any -> $HOME_NET any (msg:"ICMP test"; sid:10000001; rev:001;)

The rule consists of the following parts:

  • action for traffic matching the rule, alert in this case
  • traffic protocol like TCP, UDP or ICMP like here
  • the source address and port, simply marked as any to include all addresses and ports
  • the destination address and port, $HOME_NET as declared in the configuration and any for port
  • some additional bits
    • log message
    • unique rule identifier (sid) which for local rules needs to be 1000001 or higher
    • rule version number.

Save the local.rules and exit the editor.

Start Snort with -A console options to print the alerts to stdout. You will need to select the correct network interface with the public IP address of your server, for example, eth0.

sudo snort -A console -i eth0 -u snort -g snort -c /etc/snort/snort.conf

If you are not sure which interface to use, check your UpCloud control panel for the public IPv4 address of your server in the Network settings. You can also use the following command on your server.

ip addr

The output will list all of your currently configured network interfaces. Find the one with the same public IP address as shown in the Network settings, commonly eth0.

With Snort up and running, ping your cloud server from any other computer. You should see a notice for each ICMP call in the terminal running Snort.

07/12-11:20:33.501624  [**] [1:10000001:1] ICMP test [**] [Priority: 0] {ICMP} 83.136.252.119 -> 80.69.173.202

After the alerts show up you can stop Snort with ctrl+C.

Snort records the alerts to a log under /var/log/snort/snort.log.timestamp, where the timestamp is the point in time when Snort was started marked in Unix time. You can read the logs with the command underneath. Since you have only run Snort once, there is only one log, complete your command by pressing TAB.

snort -r /var/log/snort/snort.log.

The log shows a warning for each ICMP call with source and destination IPs, time and date, plus some additional info as shown in the example below.

WARNING: No preprocessors configured for policy 0.
07/12-11:20:33.501624 83.136.252.118 -> 80.69.173.202
ICMP TTL:63 TOS:0x0 ID:20187 IpLen:20 DgmLen:84 DF
Type:8 Code:0 ID:13891 Seq:1 ECHO

Running Snort in the background

To run Snort on Ubuntu as a service in the background you will need to add a startup script for Snort. Open a new file in a text editor for example with the next command.

sudo nano /lib/systemd/system/snort.service

Enter the following to the file, save and exit the editor.

[Unit]
Description=Snort NIDS Daemon
After=syslog.target network.target

[Service]
Type=simple
ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/snort -q -u snort -g snort -c /etc/snort/snort.conf -i eth0

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

With the service defined, reload the systemctl daemon.

sudo systemctl daemon-reload

Snort can then be run with the configuration you set up using the command below.

sudo systemctl start snort

The startup script also includes other usual systemctl commands: stop, restart, and status. For example, you can check the status of the service with the following command.

sudo systemctl status snort

Conclusions

Congratulations, you should have now successfully configured and tested a network-based intrusion detection system. This guide however only covers the very basics with an introduction to Snort and NIDS in general. To get more out of your installation, check out the deployment guides over at the Snort documents page, or jump right into writing your own detection rules with their helpful Snort rules info graph.

Janne Ruostemaa

  1. hi sir
    I have followed your tutorial from beginning to end
    when i execute snort, there is an error message

    Running in Test mode

    –== Initializing Snort ==–
    Initializing Output Plugins!
    Initializing Preprocessors!
    Initializing Plug-ins!
    Parsing Rules file “/etc/snort/snort.conf”
    PortVar ‘HTTP_PORTS’ defined : [ 80:81 311 383 591 593 901 1220 1414 1741 1830 2301 2381 2809 3037 3128 3702 4343 4848 5250 6988 7000:7001 7144:7145 7510 7777 7779 8000 8008 8014 8028 8080 8085 8088 8090 8118 8123 8180:8181 8243 8280 8300 8800 8888 8899 9000 9060 9080 9090:9091 9443 9999 11371 34443:34444 41080 50002 55555 ]
    PortVar ‘SHELLCODE_PORTS’ defined : [ 0:79 81:65535 ]
    PortVar ‘ORACLE_PORTS’ defined : [ 1024:65535 ]
    PortVar ‘SSH_PORTS’ defined : [ 22 ]
    PortVar ‘FTP_PORTS’ defined : [ 21 2100 3535 ]
    PortVar ‘SIP_PORTS’ defined : [ 5060:5061 5600 ]
    PortVar ‘FILE_DATA_PORTS’ defined : [ 80:81 110 143 311 383 591 593 901 1220 1414 1741 1830 2301 2381 2809 3037 3128 3702 4343 4848 5250 6988 7000:7001 7144:7145 7510 7777 7779 8000 8008 8014 8028 8080 8085 8088 8090 8118 8123 8180:8181 8243 8280 8300 8800 8888 8899 9000 9060 9080 9090:9091 9443 9999 11371 34443:34444 41080 50002 55555 ]
    PortVar ‘GTP_PORTS’ defined : [ 2123 2152 3386 ]
    Detection:
    Search-Method = AC-Full-Q
    Split Any/Any group = enabled
    Search-Method-Optimizations = enabled
    Maximum pattern length = 20
    ERROR: /etc/snort/snort.conf(250) Could not stat dynamic module path “/usr/local/lib/snort_dynamicengine/libsf_engine.so”: No such file or directory.

    Fatal Error, Quitting..

    i have already create those directory manually but it still got the same error
    pls help

    thanks in advance

    Reply
  2. I have a question i want to use snort with nids and hids is that possible !!

    Reply
  3. Hello! How do I set up Snort in Ubuntu to be in IPS mode? Thank you!!

    Reply
  4. Dear all
    I have problema like this
    [email protected]:~$ snort -r /var/log/snort/archived_logs/
    Running in packet dump mode

    –== Initializing Snort ==–
    Initializing Output Plugins!
    Specified pcap is not a regular file: /var/log/snort/archived_logs/
    ERROR: Error getting pcaps.
    Fatal Error, Quitting..
    [email protected]:~$

    I need answer for all…
    Please help me!
    Thanks

    Reply
  5. Shaik Mohammed Siraj

    the “configure Snort in IPS mode with DAQ” link appears to be down, can you please verify ASAP..!!..

    Reply
  6. hello , please can you help me i have this error with dump Running in packet dump mode

    –== Initializing Snort ==–
    Initializing Output Plugins!
    Error getting stat on pcap file: /var/log/snort/snort.log.: No such file or directory
    ERROR: Error getting pcaps.
    Fatal Error, Quitting..

    Reply
  7. Thanks for amazing tutorial for installing NIDS service. I’m really appreciated it!

    Reply
  8. Great tutorial.
    But I had a problem with the community rules. Your ‘sudo sed’ command refers to ‘/etc/snort/snort.conf’ but this file doesn’t exsist. For me it had to be ‘/etc/snort/rules/snort.conf’.

    Reply
  9. Hi ! Thanks for the tutorial!

    I have two problems i send ” sudo snort -A console -i eth0 -u snort -g snort -c /etc/snort/snort.conf” and snort say that ERROR: /etc/snort//etc/snort/rules/app-detect.rules(0) Unable to open rules file “/etc/snort//etc/snort/rules”: No such file or directory.

    I send sudo snort -A console -i eth0 -u snort -g snort -c /etc/snort” and it works

    The second problem is when the command works i send a ping to the host and snort say me
    “”Warning: no Preprocessors configured for policy 0.

    What can i do !?

    Thanks a lot!

    Reply
  10. Hello Dear Janne Roustemaa, first thanks for the tutorial.
    ANYWAY i have a question, with a problem that is avoiding me to use snort.
    Well after a start snort:
    _______________________________________________________________
    [email protected]: snort

    Running in packet dump mode

    –== Initializing Snort ==–
    Initializing Output Plugins!
    ERROR: Failed to lookup interface: socket: Socket type not supported. Please specify one with -i switch
    Fatal Error, Quitting..
    ______________________________________________________________
    And this appears, avoiding Snort from starting.
    I’ll wait for an answer, thank a lot anyway.
    Best regards!

    Reply
  11. Ademayokun Daini

    thanks for the guide, really appreciate it.
    however i need to be able to send my logs to arcsight SIEM which my connector is installed to read the /var/log/snort/snort.log.* files but files have permissions granted to only the snort user.
    how can i make this possible to send logs to my SIEM?

    Reply
  12. Hi

    When trying to run configuration test, I get the message “Failed to parse the IP address: server_public_ip/32. What should I do now?

    Thanks

    Reply
  13. ERROR! LuaJIT library not found. Go get it from http://www.luajit.org/ (or)
    Try compiling without openAppId using ‘–disable-open-appid’
    configure: error: “Fatal!”

    Reply
  14. hello , thanks for the great tutorial
    please can you help me
    ————————————————–
    sudo snort -A console -i eth0 -u snort -g snort -c /etc/snort/snort.conf
    ————————————————–
    Result
    [ Number of patterns truncated to 20 bytes: 45 ]
    pcap DAQ configured to passive.
    Acquiring network traffic from “eth0”.
    Reload thread starting…
    Reload thread started, thread 0x7f18209f4700 (2541)
    ERROR: Can’t start DAQ (-1) – SIOCGIFHWADDR: No such device!
    Fatal Error, Quitting..
    ————————————————-
    What should i do
    Thanks

    Reply
  15. Hi! First of all thanks for the tutorial.

    I have the following problem after running [[email protected] snort-2.9.15]$ ./configure –enable-sourcefire && make && sudo make install
    ../../src/util.h: At top level:
    ../../src/util.h:377:21: error: static declaration of ‘gettid’ follows non-static declaration
    377 | static inline pid_t gettid(void)
    | ^~~~~~
    In file included from /usr/include/unistd.h:1170,
    from /usr/local/include/daq_common.h:25,
    from /usr/local/include/daq.h:26,
    from ../../src/decode.h:48,
    from ../../src/spo_plugbase.h:31,
    from ../../src/snort.h:36,
    from sfcontrol.c:37:
    /usr/include/bits/unistd_ext.h:34:16: note: previous declaration of ‘gettid’ was here
    34 | extern __pid_t gettid (void) __THROW;
    | ^~~~~~
    make[3]: *** [Makefile:362: sfcontrol.o] Error 1
    make[3]: Leaving directory ‘/home/osboxes/snort-2.9.15/src/control’
    make[2]: *** [Makefile:558: all-recursive] Error 1
    make[2]: Leaving directory ‘/home/osboxes/snort-2.9.15/src’
    make[1]: *** [Makefile:516: all-recursive] Error 1
    make[1]: Leaving directory ‘/home/osboxes/snort-2.9.15’
    make: *** [Makefile:382: all] Error 2

    I tried to fix it following this http://cgit.openembedded.org/meta-openembedded/tree/meta-networking/recipes-connectivity/snort/snort/0001-chdeck-for-gettid-API-during-configure.patch?h=master but it does not work.

    Can you help me?

    Reply
  16. Hello and thanks for the guide!

    My problem: I’ve enabled (uncommented) preprocessors in my conf, however when I ping my host I still get

    Warning: no Preprocessors configured for policy 0.

    What could be the reason?

    Reply
  17. Safar Mohammad Forotan

    Hello dear Ruostemaa,
    Thank you for the documentation.
    I did these configurations from beginning till the end but I cannot get the effect of detection.
    Also, there is nothing in the log file: /var/log/snort#
    Please help me.

    Reply
  18. Hello, I would ask… how to log snort alert in /var/log/snort/alert? Since I have to process it by using swatch.

    Reply
  19. Whenever I run snort -r on a log file I get the below error.

    Running in packet dump mode

    –== Initializing Snort ==–
    Initializing Output Plugins!
    pcap DAQ configured to read-file.
    ERROR: Can’t initialize DAQ pcap (-1) – unknown file format
    Fatal Error, Quitting..

    Reply
  20. There are several logs in that directory and each log (aside from the first couple that I tested with) are 128mb.

    Sample output from an ls -lh command:
    -rw——- 1 snort snort 128M Jan 23 17:46 snort.log.1579826756
    -rw——- 1 snort snort 128M Jan 23 17:46 snort.log.1579826763
    -rw——- 1 snort snort 128M Jan 23 17:46 snort.log.1579826768
    -rw——- 1 snort snort 128M Jan 23 17:46 snort.log.1579826773
    -rw——- 1 snort snort 128M Jan 23 17:46 snort.log.1579826778

    Reply
  21. Hi Sir, Please help i have promblem with this command :

    sudo cp /snort_src/snort-2.9.15.1.tar/etc/*.conf* /etc/snort
    cp: cannot stat ‘/snort_src/snort-2.9.15.1.tar/etc/*.conf*’: No such file or directory

    Thank you

    Reply
  22. Hi mister,
    i have a problem to view my logs. i got follow error.
    How can i fix that?

    snort -r /var/log/snort/snort.log.1581521350
    Running in packet dump mode

    –== Initializing Snort ==–
    Initializing Output Plugins!
    pcap DAQ configured to read-file.
    ERROR: Can’t initialize DAQ pcap (-1) – /var/log/snort/snort.log.1581521350: Per mission denied
    Fatal Error, Quitting..

    greetings,
    Markus

    Reply
  23. Hello, I follow this manual and works fine, but when i put sudo systemctl status snort
    i am getting Unit snort.service could not be found.
    I dont know for what reason if snort is looking the traffic

    Reply
  24. Dear Janne,
    Thanks for great article!
    I’d like to run SNORT3.0 or latter on top of DPDK. Are there existing support for that?
    I’m trying do that by myself but no DPDK driver registered when I run snort.

    Reply
  25. Dear Janne, thank you for reply. I check the link but found the DPDK support is on roadmap only and not yet implemented.

    Regards,
    Michael

    Reply
  26. Thanks dude! This guide is very useful!

    Reply
  27. AdjabiAbderrahmane

    Hi i did everything as you said .. but when i tried that rule snort stuck at Commencing packet processing …

    Reply
  28. Hey Guys,

    When downloading “wget https://www.snort.org/downloads/snort/daq-2.0.6.tar.gz
    I get this error –

    [email protected]:~$ wget https://www.snort.org/downloads/snort/daq-2.0.6.tar.gz
    –2020-05-21 05:35:48– https://www.snort.org/downloads/snort/daq-2.0.6.tar.gz
    Resolving http://www.snort.org (www.snort.org)… 104.18.138.9, 104.18.139.9, 2606:4700::6812:8b09, …
    Connecting to http://www.snort.org (www.snort.org)|104.18.138.9|:443… connected.
    HTTP request sent, awaiting response… 404 Not Found
    2020-05-21 05:35:48 ERROR 404: Not Found.

    Any clue what the issue and how could this be fixed???

    Reply
  29. Hey,
    When running the test i get the error below
    [email protected]:~/snort_src/snort-2.9.16$ sudo snort -T -c /etc/snort/snort.conf
    Running in Test mode

    –== Initializing Snort ==–
    Initializing Output Plugins!
    Initializing Preprocessors!
    Initializing Plug-ins!
    Parsing Rules file “/etc/snort/snort.conf”
    PortVar ‘HTTP_PORTS’ defined : [ 80:81 311 383 591 593 901 1220 1414 1741 1830 2301 2381 2809 3037 3128 3702 4343 4848 5250 6988 7000:7001 7144:7145 7510 7777 7779 8000 8008 8014 8028 8080 8085 8088 8090 8118 8123 8180:8181 8243 8280 8300 8800 8888 8899 9000 9060 9080 9090:9091 9443 9999 11371 34443:34444 41080 50002 55555 ]
    PortVar ‘SHELLCODE_PORTS’ defined : [ 0:79 81:65535 ]
    PortVar ‘ORACLE_PORTS’ defined : [ 1024:65535 ]
    PortVar ‘SSH_PORTS’ defined : [ 22 ]
    PortVar ‘FTP_PORTS’ defined : [ 21 2100 3535 ]
    PortVar ‘SIP_PORTS’ defined : [ 5060:5061 5600 ]
    PortVar ‘FILE_DATA_PORTS’ defined : [ 80:81 110 143 311 383 591 593 901 1220 1414 1741 1830 2301 2381 2809 3037 3128 3702 4343 4848 5250 6988 7000:7001 7144:7145 7510 7777 7779 8000 8008 8014 8028 8080 8085 8088 8090 8118 8123 8180:8181 8243 8280 8300 8800 8888 8899 9000 9060 9080 9090:9091 9443 9999 11371 34443:34444 41080 50002 55555 ]
    PortVar ‘GTP_PORTS’ defined : [ 2123 2152 3386 ]
    Detection:
    Search-Method = AC-Full-Q
    Split Any/Any group = enabled
    Search-Method-Optimizations = enabled
    Maximum pattern length = 20
    ERROR: /etc/snort/../rules/local.rules(0) Unable to open rules file “/etc/snort/../rules/local.rules”: No such file or directory.

    Fatal Error, Quitting..
    [email protected]:~/snort_src/snort-2.9.16$

    Reply
  30. Hey,

    Still getting the below

    ● snort.service – LSB: Lightweight network intrusion detection system
    Loaded: loaded (/etc/init.d/snort; generated)
    Active: failed (Result: exit-code) since Sat 2020-05-23 22:33:50 PDT; 19s ago
    Docs: man:systemd-sysv-generator(8)
    Process: 85124 ExecStart=/etc/init.d/snort start (code=exited, status=1/FAILURE)

    May 23 22:33:50 ubuntu snort[85133]: Ports to decode RPC on: 111 32770 32771 32772 32773 32774 32775 32776 32777 32778 32779
    May 23 22:33:50 ubuntu snort[85133]: alert_fragments: INACTIVE
    May 23 22:33:50 ubuntu snort[85133]: alert_large_fragments: INACTIVE
    May 23 22:33:50 ubuntu snort[85133]: alert_incomplete: INACTIVE
    May 23 22:33:50 ubuntu snort[85133]: alert_multiple_requests: INACTIVE
    May 23 22:33:50 ubuntu snort[85133]: FATAL ERROR: Failed to initialize dynamic preprocessor: SF_SDF version 1.1.1 (-1)
    May 23 22:33:50 ubuntu snort[85124]: …fail!
    May 23 22:33:50 ubuntu systemd[1]: snort.service: Control process exited, code=exited status=1
    May 23 22:33:50 ubuntu systemd[1]: snort.service: Failed with result ‘exit-code’.
    May 23 22:33:50 ubuntu systemd[1]: Failed to start LSB: Lightweight network intrusion detection system.

    Reply
  31. How do I configure Snort and forward the rule to my different machine in VM?

    Reply
  32. Is there any way the snort file could be modified?
    If so how can that be done?

    Reply
  33. Thanks for the tutorial. All works fine except reading logs. initd started and created /var/log/snort/snort.log and alert.log with some content in it (binary). I use Debian 10.

    If I start “snort -r /var/log/snort/snort.log” I get:

    Running in packet dump mode
    –== Initializing Snort ==–
    Initializing Output Plugins!
    pcap DAQ configured to read-file.
    ERROR: Can’t initialize DAQ pcap (-1) – unknown file format
    Fatal Error, Quitting..

    Reply
  34. Thank you for the tuto

    Could you help me please by replying these questions :
    1. How to run Snort in Dataset (i.e KDD dataset) ?
    2. When can I find the alerts generated by Snort ? and how to know what alert is from which class (class means : False Positive, False Negative, True Positive or True Negative) ?

    Thank you in advance.

    Reply
  35. Thanks for your tutorial,it helps a lot.
    why i typed “snort -v -c /etc/snort/snort.conf”
    there also exists the problem “No preprocessors configured for policy 0”
    it confuses me very much!!

    Reply
  36. Thank you for excellent instruction, but if i want to use at IPS mode, how i can config?, i use snort 2.9.16, thanks!

    Reply
  37. thanks for your comments,but in thes days,i try to run snort on common user,as you mentioned in above tutorial, “sudo groupadd snort
    sudo useradd snort -r -s /sbin/nologin -c SNORT_IDS -g snort”

    and everytime i run commmand “sudo -u snort snort ” ,it will display “ERROR: Can’t start DAQ (-1) – socket: Operation not permitted!

    what should i do if i want to run snort in nologin user snort

    Reply
  38. should i run snort on other nologin user using the following command,
    snort -i eth0 -dev icmp and src xxxx -D -u snort -g snort
    this means snort is running in another non-root user?
    thank you

    Reply
  39. Dear, Janne
    Your instructions to install snort are superb. They are very well written. Thank you so much!
    I spent quite a lot of time following wrong instructions to install from various sites (e.g. https://medium.com/@koayyongcett/snort-installation-in-kali-linux-from-the-source-9a005558a2ea)
    Now.. to my question.
    AfterI upgraded to 2.9.16 from 2.9.2.2, I still see the older version
    when I issue command w/out sudo access. with sudo access, it shows the correct version.
    e.g.
    sudo snort –version
    Version 2.9.16 GRE
    and w/out sudo
    2.9.2.2

    What needs to be changed?

    A disclaimer: I’m new to Linux and snort. Trying to prepare for the school project in about week.

    Reply
  40. Thank you Janne for great manual and information. It is really great and detailed.

    I observe that when I leave ICMP test in local.rules my network is pinged every 10 minutes. I just can’t figure out what is sending these two packets.

    Thanks!

    Reply
  41. Hi Sir, first of all thank you so much for this tutorial.

    So after doing all the instalation, when I tried test with the :
    sudo snort -T -c /etc/snort/snort.conf

    I get this message:
    snort: error while loading shared libraries: libpcre.so.1: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

    I already find this file at -> /opt/bitnami/common/lib/libpcre.so.1
    and try to export with:
    export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/opt/bitnami/common/lib:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH

    but nothing works.

    Reply
  42. Great tutorial, everything is working so far, I have a question:

    How do I monitor two interfaces?

    is it as easy as including two int in snort.service

    [Unit]
    Description=Snort NIDS Daemon
    After=syslog.target network.target

    [Service]
    Type=simple
    ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/snort -q -u snort -g snort -c /etc/snort/snort.conf -i enp3s0f0

    [Install]
    WantedBy=multi-user.target

    ** if so what would the service config look like?

    Reply
  43. Hi sir, I understood installation part I have a basic doubt if I mention HOME_NET cidr block can my snort server be able to detect packets flowing in the HOME_NET or is it only the reference in logs to print appropriate timestamp with local ip address.

    Reply
  44. Yashaswi Dasari

    sudo snort -T -c /etc/snort/snort.conf
    Running in Test mode

    –== Initializing Snort ==–
    Initializing Output Plugins!
    Initializing Preprocessors!
    Initializing Plug-ins!
    Parsing Rules file “/etc/snort/snort.conf”
    PortVar ‘HTTP_PORTS’ defined : [ 80:81 311 383 591 593 901 1220 1414 1741 1830 2301 2381 2809 3037 3128 3702 4343 4848 5250 6988 7000:7001 7144:7145 7510 7777 7779 8000 8008 8014 8028 8080 8085 8088 8090 8118 8123 8180:8181 8243 8280 8300 8800 8888 8899 9000 9060 9080 9090:9091 9443 9999 11371 34443:34444 41080 50002 55555 ]
    PortVar ‘SHELLCODE_PORTS’ defined : [ 0:79 81:65535 ]
    PortVar ‘ORACLE_PORTS’ defined : [ 1024:65535 ]
    PortVar ‘SSH_PORTS’ defined : [ 22 ]
    PortVar ‘FTP_PORTS’ defined : [ 21 2100 3535 ]
    PortVar ‘SIP_PORTS’ defined : [ 5060:5061 5600 ]
    PortVar ‘FILE_DATA_PORTS’ defined : [ 80:81 110 143 311 383 591 593 901 1220 1414 1741 1830 2301 2381 2809 3037 3128 3702 4343 4848 5250 6988 7000:7001 7144:7145 7510 7777 7779 8000 8008 8014 8028 8080 8085 8088 8090 8118 8123 8180:8181 8243 8280 8300 8800 8888 8899 9000 9060 9080 9090:9091 9443 9999 11371 34443:34444 41080 50002 55555 ]
    PortVar ‘GTP_PORTS’ defined : [ 2123 2152 3386 ]
    Detection:
    Search-Method = AC-Full-Q
    Split Any/Any group = enabled
    Search-Method-Optimizations = enabled
    Maximum pattern length = 20
    ERROR: /etc/snort//etc/snort/rules/app-detect.rules(0) Unable to open rules file “/etc/snort//etc/snort/rules/app-detect.rules”: No such file or directory.

    Fatal Error, Quitting..

    Reply
  45. Hi Janne, your instructions are really well-written and definitely helped me a lot! But when I test my snort, an error as shown below occurred.

    Running in Test mode

    –== Initializing Snort ==–
    Initializing Output Plugins!
    Initializing Preprocessors!
    Initializing Plug-ins!
    Parsing Rules file “/etc/snort/snort.conf”

    Reputation config:
    WARNING: Can’t find any whitelist/blacklist entries. Reputation Preprocessor disabled.

    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
    Initializing rule chains…
    ERROR: /etc/snort/rules/local.rules(8) Illegal direction specifier: ->
    Fatal Error, Quitting..

    Reply
  46. Alexandros Antonopoulos

    Commencing packet processing (pid=xxxx) also here but when i Ctrl + C i see the results of snort

    Reply
  47. Hi there Janne! Everything works well on my Snort, but when i run the command “sudo snort -A console -i eth0 -u snort -g snort -c /etc/snort/snort.conf”, i get stuck on the Commencing packet processing (pid=xxxx). I tried to ping from two different pc but have no luck with any logs displaying on ubuntu. I have tried to check sudo snort -T -c /etc/snort/snort.conf as well but there are no errors. Any ideas how to solve this problem? Thank you in advance!

    Reply
  48. Snort 3.0 is under way.

    Reply
  49. Hi Janne!
    Thank you for posting this amazing tutorial. It was a big help for me! However I am running into some errors after installing it and would like your help.

    My first couple of errors were
    1. ERROR: /etc/snort/snort.conf(249) Could not stat dynamic module path “/usr/local/lib/snort_dynamicpreprocessor/”: No such file or directory.
    2. ERROR: /etc/snort/snort.conf(252) Could not stat dynamic module path “/usr/local/lib/snort_dynamicengine/libsf_engine.so”: No such file or directory.

    —> I worked through those errors by just making directories for them. Yet this next error initials more.

    3. ERROR: /etc/snort//etc/snort/rules/etc/snort/rules/community.rules(0) Unable to open rules file “/etc/snort//etc/snort/rules/etc/snort/rules/community.rules”: No such file or directory.

    I seen that you suggested to go into the /etc/snort/snort.conf file and set the rule path to: var RULE_PATH /etc/snort/rules, which I did and I even changed the site specific rules to include the /etc/snort/rules/community.rules, yet I am still running into the same error.

    I would really appreciate your help!

    Reply
  50. Hello Janne, thank you for these instructions. My snort “alert” file (in this path : var/log/snort/alert) is empty. Same think for “snort.log” file.
    However snort.log.xxxx is not empty.

    Thank you

    Reply
  51. Hi Janne,
    Thanks for this great tutorial, i have successfully installed snort and the test ICMP ping is also detected.
    I have registered and downloaded the rules with my code but about 90 percent of all the rule files have no rules, they only have the copyright text at the top of these files.
    Any

    Reply
  52. Hi Janne,
    Once again, thanks for your time.

    I have gone through many tutorial about setting up snort as IPS but I just want to verify one thing if I actually get it right from the tutorials and documents.

    It will seem that to setup snort as IPS, you need to install snort on one computer and set it up as IPS, then connect other computers that you actually want to protect.
    This will mean that you cannot setup snort in single cloud Server as IPS and for the purpose of protecting this same single Cloud Server. Is this right?

    Reply
  53. Help Me Sir
    My Command :

    [email protected]:~/snort_src/snort-2.9.17# sudo snort -A console -i eth0 -u snort -g snort -c /etc/snort/snort.conf
    Running in IDS mode

    –== Initializing Snort ==–
    Initializing Output Plugins!
    Initializing Preprocessors!
    Initializing Plug-ins!
    Parsing Rules file “/etc/snort/snort.conf”
    PortVar ‘HTTP_PORTS’ defined : [ 80:81 311 383 591 593 901 1220 1414 1741 1830 2301 2381 2809 3037 3128 3702 4343 4848 5250 6988 7000:7001 7144:7145 7510 7777 7779 8000 8008 8014 8028 8080 8085 8088 8090 8118 8123 8180:8181 8243 8280 8300 8800 8888 8899 9000 9060 9080 9090:9091 9443 9999 11371 34443:34444 41080 50002 55555 ]
    PortVar ‘SHELLCODE_PORTS’ defined : [ 0:79 81:65535 ]
    PortVar ‘ORACLE_PORTS’ defined : [ 1024:65535 ]
    PortVar ‘SSH_PORTS’ defined : [ 22 ]
    PortVar ‘FTP_PORTS’ defined : [ 21 2100 3535 ]
    PortVar ‘SIP_PORTS’ defined : [ 5060:5061 5600 ]
    PortVar ‘FILE_DATA_PORTS’ defined : [ 80:81 110 143 311 383 591 593 901 1220 1414 1741 1830 2301 2381 2809 3037 3128 3702 4343 4848 5250 6988 7000:7001 7144:7145 7510 7777 7779 8000 8008 8014 8028 8080 8085 8088 8090 8118 8123 8180:8181 8243 8280 8300 8800 8888 8899 9000 9060 9080 9090:9091 9443 9999 11371 34443:34444 41080 50002 55555 ]
    PortVar ‘GTP_PORTS’ defined : [ 2123 2152 3386 ]
    Detection:
    Search-Method = AC-Full-Q
    Split Any/Any group = enabled
    Search-Method-Optimizations = enabled
    Maximum pattern length = 20
    ERROR: /etc/snort/snort.conf(260) Missing/incorrect dynamic engine lib specifier.
    Fatal Error, Quitting..

    How is the solution to this problem in debian 10 Sir?

    Reply
  54. Please, update this manual to Snort 3.x.

    Reply
  55. When running this comand :
    ./configure –enable-sourcefire && make && sudo make install

    It return :
    ./configure: line 13028: daq_load_modules in -ldaq_static… no
    ERROR! daq_static library not found, go get it from http //www.snort.org/

    Reply
  56. Hi Janne,
    To run Snort on pcap I used the following command :
    $ snort -r /home/mina/Downloads/test.pcap -c /etc/snort/snort.conf -l /var/log/snort/

    I tried to read Snort log file :
    $ sudo snort -r /var/log/snort/snort.log.xxxxxxx

    Running in packet dump mode

    –== Initializing Snort ==–
    Initializing Output Plugins!
    pcap DAQ configured to read-file.
    ERROR: Can’t initialize DAQ pcap (-1) – truncated dump file; tried to read 4 file header bytes, only got 0
    Fatal Error, Quitting..

    N.B
    I’m on Ubuntu 20.04, and I installed Snort 2.9.17.1

    Reply
  57. Hello,
    Run Snort on a PCAP file, it does not detect nothing.
    I uncommented the Rules in step #7 in snort.conf ?

    Thank you.

    Reply
  58. Hi Janne,

    Thank you for your tutorial, it helped me a lot.

    I have compiled snort 2.9.17.1 GRE (Build 1013) aarch64 from source on openSUSE Tumbleweed. I can observe ICMP packets via console, including the ping test. I am struggling to daemonise it. I’ve tried various commands and I always end up with with a ‘merged.log’ file in /var/log/snort/ . When I run it via console, it generates the ‘snort.log.xxxxx’ file and no ‘merged.log’ file. This doesn’t happen when I try to daemonise it or when I run it in the background. Content of merged.log:

    Running in packet dump mode

    –== Initializing Snort ==–
    Initializing Output Plugins!
    pcap DAQ configured to read-file.
    ERROR: Can’t initialize DAQ pcap (-1) – unknown file format
    Fatal Error, Quitting..

    When the output goes to console it prints ‘Running in IDS mode’ as opposed to ‘Running in packet dump mode’ when running it as a service/background process.

    Apologies, I’m new to all this and still trying to figure out things.

    How can I confirm the ping test when it’s running as a service?

    Could you please advise what am I doing wrong?

    Thank you.

    Kind regards,
    Radu

    Reply
  59. Stephen Sobulo

    Hello sir, thank you very much for this detailed lecture. I got the following error when trying to access the log created by snort:

    [email protected]:~/snort_src/snort-2.9.17.1$ snort -r /var/log/snort/snort.log.1623716776
    Running in packet dump mode

    –== Initializing Snort ==–
    Initializing Output Plugins!
    pcap DAQ configured to read-file.
    ERROR: Can’t initialize DAQ pcap (-1) – /var/log/snort/snort.log.1623716776: Permission denied
    Fatal Error, Quitting..

    What should I do to fix this error?

    Reply
  60. Hello Jaan , thank you for your effort ,I have 2 question if you can help me as soon is possible
    1-i have a project in univ and we want to send defferent attack from onother machine to snort machine and i want to see all the alert and evenement what snort react for each attack is the output configure like you do and just read the log file or there is other configuriation with syslog or any interface grafic to show alert
    2-I have a probleme whene i try to running snort in the back ground the statut of snort is failed
    when i try the commend : sudo systemctl status snort

    ● snort.service – Snort NIDS Daemon
    Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/snort.service; disabled; vendor preset: e
    Active: failed (Result: exit-code) since Wed 2021-06-23 15:27:36 PDT; 3s ago
    Process: 125903 ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/snort -q -u snort -g snort -c /etc/sn
    Main PID: 125903 (code=exited, status=1/FAILURE)

    Jun 23 15:27:36 ubuntu systemd[1]: Started Snort NIDS Daemon.
    Jun 23 15:27:36 ubuntu snort[125903]: ERROR: Can’t start DAQ (-1) – eth0: SIOCET
    Jun 23 15:27:36 ubuntu snort[125903]: Fatal Error, Quitting..
    Jun 23 15:27:36 ubuntu systemd[1]: snort.service: Main process exited, code=exit
    Jun 23 15:27:36 ubuntu systemd[1]: snort.service: Unit entered failed state.
    Jun 23 15:27:36 ubuntu systemd[1]: snort.service: Failed with result ‘exit-code’
    l

    Reply
  61. Hello Jane Rosmala, I need your help. I can’t run the command below:

    cp ~/snort_src/snort-2.9.16/etc/*.conf* /etc/snort sudo
    cp ~/snort_src/snort-2.9.16/etc/*.map /etc/snort

    can you give me a solution ?

    thank you

    Reply
  62. Hi Janne,

    Could you please help me? I followed your instructions and when I start Snort using: sudo snort -A console -i ens33 -u snort -g snort -c /etc/snort/snort.conf
    I get:

    Running in IDS mode

    –== Initializing Snort ==–
    Initializing Output Plugins!
    Initializing Preprocessors!
    Initializing Plug-ins!
    Parsing Rules file “/etc/snort/snort.conf”


    –== Initialization Complete ==–

    ,,_ -*> Snort! <*-
    o" )~ Version 2.9.18 GRE (Build 169)
    '''' By Martin Roesch & The Snort Team: http://www.snort.org/contact#team
    Copyright (C) 2014-2021 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    Copyright (C) 1998-2013 Sourcefire, Inc., et al.
    Using libpcap version 1.9.1 (with TPACKET_V3)
    Using PCRE version: 8.39 2016-06-14
    Using ZLIB version: 1.2.11

    Rules Engine: SF_SNORT_DETECTION_ENGINE Version 3.2
    Preprocessor Object: SF_DCERPC2 Version 1.0
    Preprocessor Object: SF_SDF Version 1.1
    Preprocessor Object: SF_SMTP Version 1.1
    Preprocessor Object: SF_MODBUS Version 1.1
    Preprocessor Object: SF_SSH Version 1.1
    Preprocessor Object: SF_GTP Version 1.1
    Preprocessor Object: SF_S7COMMPLUS Version 1.0
    Preprocessor Object: SF_SIP Version 1.1
    Preprocessor Object: SF_POP Version 1.0
    Preprocessor Object: SF_DNS Version 1.1
    Preprocessor Object: appid Version 1.1
    Preprocessor Object: SF_SSLPP Version 1.1
    Preprocessor Object: SF_DNP3 Version 1.1
    Preprocessor Object: SF_IMAP Version 1.0
    Preprocessor Object: SF_REPUTATION Version 1.1
    Preprocessor Object: SF_FTPTELNET Version 1.2
    Commencing packet processing (pid=98118)

    But when Ido ping on 192.168.230.131 which is the IP I get from Ip addr, I don’t get an alert and there is no log in /var/log/snort.

    Not sure what I’m doing wrong, or I’m missing somthing. Please help

    Reply
  63. Hi Janne, I’m having problems like the following:

    Running in Test mode

    –== Initializing Snort ==–
    Initializing Output Plugins!
    Initializing Preprocessors!
    Initializing Plug-ins!
    Parsing Rules file “/etc/snort/snort.conf”
    PortVar ‘HTTP_PORTS’ defined : [ 80:81 311 383 591 593 901 1220 1414 1741 1830 2301 2381 2809 3037 3128 3702 4343 4848 5250 6988 7000:7001 7144:7145 7510 7777 7779 8000 8008 8014 8028 8080 8085 8088 8090 8118 8123 8180:8181 8243 8280 8300 8800 8888 8899 9000 9060 9080 9090:9091 9443 9999 11371 34443:34444 41080 50002 55555 ]
    PortVar ‘SHELLCODE_PORTS’ defined : [ 0:79 81:65535 ]
    PortVar ‘ORACLE_PORTS’ defined : [ 1024:65535 ]
    PortVar ‘SSH_PORTS’ defined : [ 22 ]
    PortVar ‘FTP_PORTS’ defined : [ 21 2100 3535 ]
    PortVar ‘SIP_PORTS’ defined : [ 5060:5061 5600 ]
    PortVar ‘FILE_DATA_PORTS’ defined : [ 80:81 110 143 311 383 591 593 901 1220 1414 1741 1830 2301 2381 2809 3037 3128 3702 4343 4848 5250 6988 7000:7001 7144:7145 7510 7777 7779 8000 8008 8014 8028 8080 8085 8088 8090 8118 8123 8180:8181 8243 8280 8300 8800 8888 8899 9000 9060 9080 9090:9091 9443 9999 11371 34443:34444 41080 50002 55555 ]
    PortVar ‘GTP_PORTS’ defined : [ 2123 2152 3386 ]
    Detection:
    Search-Method = AC-Full-Q
    Split Any/Any group = enabled
    Search-Method-Optimizations = enabled
    Maximum pattern length = 20
    ERROR: /etc/snort/classification.config(0) Unable to open rules file “/etc/snort/classification.config”: No such file or directory.

    Fatal Error, Quitting..

    can you give me a solution?

    thank you

    Reply
  64. Hi Janne, I’m having problems like the following:
    Running in packet dump mode

    –== Initializing Snort ==–
    Initializing Output Plugins!
    pcap DAQ configured to read-file.
    ERROR: Can’t initialize DAQ pcap (-1) – unknown file format
    Fatal Error, Quitting..

    Can you give me a solution?

    Thank you.

    Reply
  65. Thank you for this great tutorial! But if I try to run snort:
    sudo snort -A console -i venet0 -u snort -g snort -c /etc/snort/snort.conf
    I receive this error: ERROR: Cannot decode data link type 113
    Fatal Error, Quitting..
    Do you have a solution?

    Reply

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